While pixels are actual block's of an image, Vector's are point's, line's, curve's and polygon's on an algebraic grid. These are called "primitives" which are the main structure's to Vector art.
Also when you zoom into a Digital image it will have several blocks of pixelation, however when you zoom into a Vectorized image there are no pixel's due to the image being made up of line's and point's.
Digital image Close up
Vector image Close up
Vector Primitive image
As you can see close up to a vector image its flat and no pixelation, but when zooming into a digital image it becomes pixelated due to know use of lines and curves with point's.